Adam Smith is the one most often cited as coming up with the concept of capitalism. However, if you want to get into semantics, the word "capitalism" did not originate with the Scotsman. We're not sure what he called it: Moneyism? Profitism? Exploittheworkerism? Who knows.
No, the first economist to actually use the word in the English language was David Ricardo. Together with Smith, he is considered one of the most influential of the classical economists. The Englishman came up with a number of theories still in use to this day, including that of comparative advantage. And — what do you know! — Jew, although he converted out upon marrying a goyishe woman.
Of course, the person who popularized "capitalism" was Karl Marx, in his "Das Kapital". Obviously, his goal was not to popularize capitalism itself, but his work did entrench the word in the English language.
So, capitalism: invented by Jews. Or, if you want, "capitalism": invented by Jews. But why argue about semantics?